Useful Information


The Lean Services Architecture (LSA) is an open schema-based architecture that provides a Services Orientated Architecture (SOA) designed for mobile, low-powered and distributed ‘things’.

The LSA is software-only, with low implementation overhead, making it suitable for lean (low powered) computing devices and lean (low bandwidth) communications. It is operating system, programming language and transport protocol neutral. It was designed and proven for the tactical military domain but can be used in any other environments.

The LSA Specification was invented and authored by 2iC and published under the Open Government Licence by the UK Ministry of Defence.


There is high military demand for systems interoperability to increase battlefield tempo, maximise military efficiency and to better exploit existing capabilities and investment. This demand is currently not being effectively met, with the absence of suitable software tooling being a major contributing factor. Middleware designed to meet the challenge is needed and this opens a new market in battlefield middleware. The paper estimates the market size and value.


  • Def Stan 23-09 ‘Generic Vehicle Architecture (GVA)’

    DefStan 23-09 defines physical and communications interfaces on a vehicle to allow interchange of equipment and provides definitions of the Human Machine Interface. It also provides the initial thoughts on Systems Information Exploitation to transfer information off the vehicle to improve the overall military capability.

  • Def Stan 23-13 ‘Generic Base Architecture (GBA)’

    DefStan 23-13 is the Defence Standard which defines interfaces for power, data, water, waste and fuel on future deployed and tactical bases. Along with GVA and GSA, GBA is a part of the Land Open Systems Architecture (LOSA).

  • Def Stan 23-12 ‘Generic Soldier Architecture (GSA)’

    DefStan 23-12 is the Defence Standard which identifies the critical interfaces and constraints, and specifies the standards to be used when designing equipment for the dismounted soldier. Along with GVA and GBA, GSA is a part of the Land Open Systems Architecture (LOSA).